Airway Stenosis

Anterior Glottic Web

An anterior glottic web formation can occur from either congenital or acquired causes. A congenital anterior glottic web is quite rare and the symptoms are usually identified at birth or in a young child if the web is large, causing stridorous breathing. Smaller congenital webs are often identified later in life and are associated with exercise restriction and/or dysphonia. Acquired anterior glottic webs are the most common type of glottic web and they typically occur from a traumatic injury to the larynx, be it surgical, iatrogenic, external trauma, or intubation related. Anterior glottic webs range in size from extremely small (a microweb) to encompassing the entire length of the membranous vocal folds. The symptoms, severity, and surgical procedures will vary significantly based on the etiology and size of the web.

Laryngotracheal Stenosis

Laryngotracheal stenosis (LS), a narrowing of the larynx and/or trachea, is a condition that can occur in infants and children for several reasons. Acquired LS develops as a result of trauma to the larynx and trachea, usually from endotracheal intubation, while congenital LS is a narrowing present at birth. Neck trauma, inhalation burns, and prolonged intubation can also lead to LS. Symptoms include, stridor (noisy breathing), feeding problems, croup (a loud cough that sounds like barking), and recurrent or sever croup.

Posterior Glottis Stenosis

Posterior glottis stenosis a narrowing of the posterior glottis which encompasses one third of the vocal cords, along with the adjacent muscle, tissue, and cartilage. When this area narrows, breathing and swallowing difficulties can occur. The most common cause of posterior glottic stenosis is endotracheal intubation during anesthesia or when recovering from respiratory disease or coma. In infants, intubation can be used with certain childhood diseases and after premature delivery.

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Subglottic Stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the subglottic airway, the portion of the trachea below the voice box and the vocal cords. The condition affects both soft tissue and cartilage support in the region. Subglottic stenosis is either a congenital disorder or a medical condition that develops later in life. Although subglottic stenosis is relatively rare, it can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.

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Tracheal Stenosis

Tracheal stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of the trachea that causes breathing difficulties. Tracheal stenosis may occur in several locations in the windpipe. When it occurs below the vocal cords and voice box, it is known as subglottic stenosis. The two primary types of tracheal stenosis are congenital, resulting from a birth defect, and acquired, resulting from a trauma. Of the two, acquired stenosis is by far the more common type.

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